Hi Readers, Welcome back
Happy Independence Day 💓 India
Let’s understand briefly the history & consequences during the period of India independence.
People from all over the world were always crazy about India and its wealth, tradition and knowledge. The French and British people came by 17th Century colonized India by grabbing the full control of almost all territories across India. Britishers had ruled India for nearly 200 years.
First session was held in Bombay under W.C.Banerjee in 1885 with 72 delegates.
The party was quite moderate in its approach and confided in British justice and generosity during its first two decades.
But the repressive measures of the British gave rise to extremists within Congress like Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai (who are known popularly as Lal, Bal, Pal).
• Lal Bal Pal (Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Pal), and Aurobindo Ghosh played the important role in 1905’s Swadeshi movement.
• INC took the Swadeshi call first at the Banaras Session by 1905 presided over by G.K.Gokhale.
• Foreign goods were kept on fire at various places.
• Muslim league founded in 1906 Under the leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk.
• Besides other constitutional measures, Indian Councils Act or Minto Morley Reforms (1909) created a separate electorate for Muslims.
• The HQ of the party was at San Francisco.
• Home Rule Movement Started by B.G. Tilak (by April 1916) at Poona and Annie Besant and Subramania Iyer at Adyar, near Madras (by Sept 1916).
• Its Objective is Self – government for India in the British Empire.
He gave the slogan: “Swaraj is my birth right and I will have it”.
• Lucknow Pact Happened following a war between Britain and Turkey leading to anti-British feelings among Muslims by 1916.
• Both INC and Muslim League concluded this Pact (The Congress party had accepted the separate electorates, and both jointly demanded for a representative government and dominion status for the country).
• On April 13, 1919 – General O’ Dyer fires at people who assembled in the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar.
• On March 13, 1940, Sardar Udham Singh killed Odier when the later was addressing a meeting in Caxton Hall, London.
• Two brothers, Mohd. Ali and Shaukat Ali started the Khilafat movement by 1920.
• Simon Commission was Constituted under John Simon by 1927, to review the political situation in India and to introduce further reforms and extension of parliamentary democracy.
• On Dec.31, 1929, the newly adopted tri-colour flag was unfurled and Jan 26, 1930, was fixed as the First Independence Day, was to be celebrated every year.
In remembrance with this only Indian republic day is celebrated by January 26.
• Dandi March by Gandhiji in 1930 is also called as the Salt Satyagraha.
• First Round Table conference was the first conference arranged between the British and Indians as equals.
• The conference was Boycotted by INC, Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, Liberals and some others were there.
• Moderate Statesman, Sapru, Jaikaar and Srinivas Shastri initiated efforts to break the ice between Gandhiji and the government.
• The Communal Award was Announced by Ramsay McDonald which had showed divide and rule policy of the British.
• Third Round Table Conference held at 19352 was proved fruitless as most of the national leaders were in prison.
• The resolution for The Quit India Movement was passed on Aug.8, 1942, at Bombay.
• The arrests provoked anger among the masses and, there being no program of action, the movement became spontaneous and violent. Violence spread throughout the country.
• However, the movement was crushed.
• The mission held talks with the INC and Muslim League to bring about acceptance of their proposals.
• Both Congress and Muslims League were accepted it.
• Bengal and Punjab will be partitioned • There would be a separate constitutional assembly for Pakistan to frame its constitution.
• Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel who was the first home minister, used iron hand in this regard.
These all remaining Princely states along with Goa which was with the Portuguese and Pondicherry held by French also added to the Indian Territory Later.
Hope you have got a glimpse of the timeline between formation of congress party and till the independence of India.
Thank you for reading 🔑